Basics of Grid Computing
Grid Computing harnesses distributed resources from various institutions (resource providers), to meet the demands of clients consuming them. Resources from different providers are likely to be diverse and heterogeneous in their functions (computing, storage, software, etc.), hardware architectures (Intel x86, IBM PowerPC, etc.), and usage policies set by owning institutions.

Developed under the umbrella of Grid Computing, information services, name services, and resource brokering services are important technologies responsible for the aggregation of resource information and availability, selection of resources to meet the clients’ specific requirements and the quality of services criteria while adhering to the resource usage policies.

Figure 8.1 shows an exemplary relationship of resource providers and consumers for a collaborative Grid computing scenario. Clients or users submit their requests for application execution along with resource requirements from their home domains.

A Resource broker selects a domain with appropriate resources to acquire from and to execute the application or route the application to domain for execution with results and status returning to the home domain.

Basics of Cloud Computing
IDC1 defined two specific aspects of Clouds: Cloud Services and Cloud Computing. Cloud Services are “consumer and business products, services and solutions that are delivered and consumed in real-time over the Internet” while Cloud Computing is “an emerging IT development, deployment and delivery model, enabling real-time delivery of products, services and solutions over the Internet (i.e., enabling Cloud services)”.

Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud2 popularized the Cloud computing model by providing an on-demand provisioning of virtualized computational resources as metered services to clients or users. While not restricted, most of the clients are individual users that acquire necessary resources for their own usage through EC2’s APIs without cross organization agreements or contracts.

Figure 8.2 illustrates possible usage models from clients C1 and C2 for resources/services of Cloud providers. As Cloud models evolve, many are developing the hybrid Cloud model in which enterprise resource brokers may acquire additional needed resources from external Cloud providers to meet the demands of submitted enterprise workloads (E1) and client work requests (E2). Moreover, the enterprise resource domain and Cloud providers may all belong to one corporation and thus form a private Cloud model.

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