CMOS GATES BASIC AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT ARE CMOS GATES? HOW CMOS GATES WORK?


CMOS gates are based on simple modifications to the CMOS inverter.

Figure 8.18(a) and Figure 8.18(b) show that the CMOS NOR and NAND gates are essentially CMOS inverters in which the load and driving transistor are replaced by series or parallel combinations (as appropriate) of PMOS andNMOStransistors, respectively.

CMOS INVERTERS BASIC AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT ARE CMOS INVERTERS? APPLICATION OF CMOS INVERTERS

As shown in Fig. 8.17(a), the CMOS inverter consists of an enhancement NMOS as the driving transistor, and a complementary enhancement PMOS load transistor. The driving transistor is off when Vin is low, and the load transistor is off when Vin is high. 


PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT DEFINITION BASIC AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT IS PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT?

Basic Physical Principles
Materials that are used for crystal oscillator applications exhibit the piezoelectric effect. This phenomenon produces an electric field within a material when a mechanical force is applied.

Conversely, if an electrical drive signal is applied to the crystal, a mechanical vibration results. If the driving signal is periodic in nature, then the resulting vibration will also be periodic. Very accurate electric signal frequencies can be produced by certain materialswith the appropriate shape, electrode geometry, and ambient conditions.

SEMICONDUCTORS DEFINITION BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT IS A SEMICONDUCTOR? INFORMATION ABOUT SEMICONDUCTORS

Semiconductors are a categoryofmaterialswith an electrical conductivity that is between that of conductors and insulators. Good conductors, which are all metals, have electrical resistivities down in the range of 10^−6 OHM -cm.

Insulators have electrical resistivities that are up in the range from 10^6 to as much as about 10^12 OHM - cm. Semiconductors have resistivities that are generally in the range of 10^−4–10^4 OHM -cm.

RADAR - RADIO DETECTION AND RANGING APPLICATIONS BASIC AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT ARE THE APPLICATIONS OF RADAR - RADIO DETECTION AND RANGING

Radars can be classified by frequency band, use, or platform, for example, ground based, shipborne, airborne, or spaceborne. Radars generally operate in the microwave regime although HF over-the-horizon (OTH) radars such as JINDALEE, OTHB, and ROTHR use similar principles in bouncing signals from the ionosphere to achieve long-range coverage.

ANTENNA BANDWIDTH BASIC AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT IS ANTENNA BANDWIDTH? THE PURPOSE OF ANTENNA BANDWIDTH?

Antennas can find use in systems that require narrow or large bandwidths depending on the intended application. Bandwidth is a measure of the frequency range over which a parameter, such as impedance, remains within a given tolerance. Dipoles, for example, by their nature are very narrow band.

COMMON COLLECTOR TRANSISTOR CONFIGURATION BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT IS COMMON COLLECTOR TRANSISTOR CONFIGURATION

Figure 1 is a practical example of a common-collector transistor amplifier. Note that the output is taken off of the emitter instead of the collector (as in the common-emitter configuration).

A common-collector amplifier is not capable of voltage gain. In fact, there is a very slight loss of voltage amplitude between input and output.








HISTORY OF SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS BASICS

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SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS BRIEF HISTORY

The crystal detectors used in early radios were the forerunners of modern solid-state devices. However, the era of solid-state electronics began with the invention of the transistor in 1947 at Bell Labs.

The inventors were Walter Brattain, John Bardeen, and William Shockley. PC (printed circuit) boards were introduced in 1947, the year the transistor was invented. Commercial manufacturing of transistors began in Allentown, Pennsylvania, in 1951.

BREADBOARD AND PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT ARE BREADBOARD AND PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD?

A breadboard is a rectangular plastic box filled with holes, which have contacts in which you can insert electronic components and wires. A breadboard is what you use to string together a temporary version of your circuit.

SAFETY USE OF SOLDERING IRON TUTORIALS

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SOLDERING SAFETY TIPS

Soldering poses a few different dangers. (You might use solder to attach various pieces of your electronics project, such as soldering wires onto a speaker, microphone, or switch.) The soldering iron itself gets mighty hot.

The solder (the material you heat with the iron) gets hot. Occasionally, you even get an air pocket or impurity in solder that can pop as you heat it, splattering a little solder toward your face or onto your arm.

STATIC DISCHARGE PROTECTION FOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES TUTORIALS

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HOW TO PROTECT ELECTRONIC DEVICES FROM ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE?


Protecting Electronic Components from Dreaded Static Discharge
You’re not the only thing in your work area that could suffer from shocks. Static discharge (also referred to as electrostatic discharge; ESD) can do damage to your delicate electrical components.

Static discharge is so named because it’s caused by the discharge of electrons from a static charge that hang around in an insulating body, even after the source of those electrons goes away.

AUTOMATIC BATHROOM LIGHT BASIC ELECTRONICS PROJECT

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HOW TO MAKE AUTOMATIC BATHROOM LIGHT


This circuit is used to automate the working of a bathroom light. It is designed for a bathroom fitted with an automatic door-closer, where the manual verification of light status is difficult. The circuit also indicates whether the bathroom is occupied or not.

PRINCIPLES OF OSCILLATION BASIC AND TUTORIALS

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HOW PRINCIPLES OF OSCILLATION WORKS?


A small signal voltage amplifier is shown in Fig. 1.3. In Fig. 1.3(a) the operational amplifier has no external components connected to it and the signal is fed in as shown. The operational amplifier has an extremely high gain under these circumstances and this leads to saturation within the amplifier.

TOP VIDEO GAMES COMPANY IN THE WORLD

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A RUN DOWN ON THE TOP VIDEO GAMES MAKER IN THE WORLD


Microsoft Corporation
While relatively new to the market, Microsoft has a number of products in the home consumer space including its Xbox gaming platform. Xbox hardware is built with an impressive Intel processor, a custom-designed Microsoft graphics processor with Nvidia memory, and a hard disk drive. It supports HDTV and includes a DVD, four I/O ports for the game controller, and an Ethernet port.

BINARY SYSTEM BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT IS BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM? A TUTORIAL ON BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

The binary number system is a radix-2 number system with ‘0’ and ‘1’ as the two independent digits. All larger binary numbers are represented in terms of ‘0’ and ‘1’. The procedure for writing higher order binary numbers after ‘1’ is similar to the one explained in the case of the decimal number system.

THE 7400-SERIES DISCRETE LOGIC FAMILY IC BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT IS THE 7400-SERIES DISCRETE LOGIC FAMILY INTEGRATED CIRCUITS?


With the advent of ICs in the early 1960s, engineers needed ready access to a library of basic logic gates so that these gates could be wired together on circuit boards and turned into useful products. Rather than having to design a custom microchip for each new project, semiconductor companies began to recognize a market for standard, off-the-shelf logic ICs.

BOOLEAN LOGIC ALGEBRA AND LOGIC GATES BASICS AND TUTORIAL

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BOOLEAN LOGIC AND LOGIC GATES TUTORIALS

Machines of all types, including computers, are designed to perform specific tasks in exact well defined manners. Some machine components are purely physical in nature, because their composition and behavior are strictly regulated by chemical, thermodynamic, and physical properties.

For example, an engine is designed to transform the energy released by the combustion of gasoline and oxygen into rotating a crankshaft. Other machine components are algorithmic in nature, because their designs primarily follow constraints necessary to implement a set of logical functions as defined by human beings rather than the laws of physics.

CLOCK SKEW BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT IS CLOCK SKEW? HOW CLOCK SKEW WORKS?


The preceding timing analysis example is simplified for ease of presentation by assuming that the source and destination flops in a logic path are driven by the same clock signal. Although a synchronous circuit uses a common clock for all flops, there are small, nonzero variances in clock timing at individual flops.

Wiring delay variances are one source of this nonideal behavior. When a clock source drives two flops, the two wires that connect to each flop’s clock input are usually not identical in length. This length inequality causes one flop’s clock to arrive slightly before or after the other flop’s clock.

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT IS AN OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER?


An operational amplifier or op amp is a circuit that takes an input voltage and amplifies it. The symbol used to represent an op amp in a circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 9-1.

SOLDERING IRON BASIC INFORMATION AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT IS SOLDERING IRON? HOW TO USE SOLDERING IRON?

SOLDERING IRON

Soldering is used in nearly every phase of electronic construction so you’ll need soldering tools. A soldering tool must be hot enough to do the job and lightweight enough for agility and comfort.

A temperature controlled iron works well, although the cost is not justified for occasional projects. Get an iron with a small conical or chisel tip.

COLPITTS OSCILLATORS BASIC CIRCUIT TUTORIALS

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WHAT ARE COLPITTS OSCILLATORS?

Colpitts oscillators are similar to the shunt fed Hartley oscillator circuit except the Colpitts oscillator, instead of having a tapped inductor, utilizes two series capacitors in its LC circuit.

With the Colpitts oscillator the connection between these two capacitors is used as the center tap for the circuit. A Colpitts oscillator circuit is shown at Figure 2-5, and you will see some similarities with the Hartley oscillator.

Colpitts Oscillators

555 TIMER BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT IS 555 TIME AND HOW 555 TIMER WORKS?

Creating a Pulse
The 555 is made out of simple transistors that are about the same as on / off switches. They do not have any sense of time. When you apply a voltage they turn on and when you take away the voltage they turn off. So by itself, the 555 can not create a pulse.

The way the pulse is created is by using some components in a circuit attached to the 555 (see the circuit on the next page). This circuit is made of a capacitor and a resistor. We can flip a switch and start charging the capacitor.

LASER CONTROLLED ON OFF SWITCH USING 555 TIMER BASIC ELECTRONICS PROJECT

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HOW TO MAKE LASER CONTROLLED ON OFF SWITCH?

This is a basic electronic project on how to make a laser controlled on/ off switch using a 555 timer. Below is its schematic diagram.

TOUCH ACTIVATED ALARM SYSTEM BASIC ELECTRONIC PROJECT

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TOUCH ACTIVATED ALARM SYSTEM PROJECT USING 555 TIMER

This is a basic electronic project of Touch Activate Alarm System using a 555 timer. The 555 can be a LM, NE, or MC(cmos) type, they are all pin-compatible. **C1/C2's working voltage should be increased to 25V if you decide to go with a 12V power source. Below is the schematic diagram.

BATTERY TESTER FOR 1.5 AND 9 V BASIC ELECTRONICS PROJECT

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BATTERY TESTER FOR 1.5 AND 9 V PROJECT

This is a basic electronics project for a Battery Tested for 1.5 and 9 Volts batteries. Below is the schematic diagram.

LASER DIODES BASIC AND TUTORIALS

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LASER DIODES BASIC INFORMATION
What Are Laser Diodes?

The laser diode is a further development upon the regular light-emitting diode, or LED. The term "laser" itself is actually an acronym, despite the fact it's often written in lower-case letters.

"Laser" stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, and refers to another strange quantum process whereby characteristic light emitted by electrons transitioning from high-level to low-level energy states in a material stimulate other electrons in a substance to make similar "jumps," the result being a synchronized output of light from the material.

DIODE RATINGS BASIC AND TUTORIALS

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RATINGS OF DIODES BASIC INFORMATION
What Are The Ratings Of Diodes?

In addition to forward voltage drop (Vf ) and peak inverse voltage (PIV), there are many other ratings of diodes important to circuit design and component selection. Semiconductor manufacturers provide
detailed specifications on their products { diodes included { in publications known as datasheets.

MULTIMETER CHECK OF DIODES BASIC AND TUTORIALS

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CHECKING DIODES USING METER BASIC INFORMATION
How To Check Diodes Using Multimeter Tutorials?

Being able to determine the polarity (cathode versus anode) and basic functionality of a diode is a very important skill for the electronics hobbyist or technician to have.

Since we know that a diode is essentially nothing more than a one-way valve for electricity, it makes sense we should be able to verify its one-way nature using a DC (battery-powered) ohmmeter.

ABSOLUTE dB SCALE BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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ABSOLUTE dB SCALE BASIC INFORMATION
What Is The Absolute dB Scale?

It is also possible to use the decibel as a unit of absolute power, in addition to using it as an expression of power gain or loss. A common example of this is the use of decibels as a measurement of sound pressure intensity.

In cases like these, the measurement is made in reference to some standardized power level de¯ned as 0 dB. For measurements of sound pressure, 0 dB is loosely defined as the lower threshold of human hearing, objectively quanti¯ed as 1 picowatt of sound power per square meter of area.

LATCH UP PARASITIC THYRISTOR BASIC AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT IS A LATCH UP PARASITIC THYRISTOR?

A portion of the minority carriers injected into the drift region from the collector of an IGBT flows directly to the emitter terminal. The negative charge of electrons in the inversion layer attracts the majority of holes and generates the lateral component of hole current through the p-type body layer as shown in Fig. 7.10.

TYPES OF SWITCH BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF SWITCH?

(a) Push-button.
These are found on calculators, telephones, electronic games and most equipment with a digital display.

(b) Rotary.
These are switches controlled by a knob, and are turned instead of moved up and down. Figure 2 shows the rear of such a switch and its circuit symbol.

LED FLASHER USING LM3909 IC BASIC ELECTRONICS PROJECT

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HOW TO MAKE A LED FLASHER USING LM3909 IC?

Introduction
The LM3909 is an integrated circuit (IC) which will flash a light-emitting diode (LED). Using only two extra components and a battery, the circuit is cheap and has a very low current drain from a 1.5 V cell.

The circuit can be used as a novelty flasher, an indicator for a dummy alarm bell box, or it could be attached to a torch so that it could be found easily in the dark! The simple circuit is shown in Figure 1.


COMMON DIODE TYPES BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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WHAT ARE THE COMMON DIODE TYPES?

Depending on their applications, diodes can be segregated into the following major divisions:

Small Signal Diode.
These are the semiconductor devices used most often in a wide variety of applications. In general purpose applications, they are used as a switch in rectifiers, limiters, capacitors, and in wave shaping.

SENSOR CLASSIFICATION BASICS AND TUTORIALS

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THE DIFFERENT TYPE OF SENSORS

Sensor classification schemes range from very simple to the complex. Depending on the classification purpose, different classification criteria may be selected. Here, we offer several practical ways to look at the sensors.

All sensors may be of two kinds: passive and active. A passive sensor does not need any additional energy source and directly generates an electric signal in response to an external stimulus; that is, the input stimulus energy is converted by the sensor into the output signal. The examples are a thermocouple, a photodiode, and a piezoelectric sensor. Most of passive sensors are direct sensors .
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